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Albert Einstein


Probably the most famous scientist was born on March 14, 1879, at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany. Very soon after that his family moved to Munich, where the young genius started school at Luitpold Gymnasium. Later Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics and he graduated 5 years later, in 1901. At the same time he acquired Swiss citizenship and, unable to become a teacher, he became technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.



۱۹۰۸ was a key year in his carrier starting a series of appointments during the following 6 years. First, the same year he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in 1912 for a similar position. In 1914 he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He took German citizenship in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933. Then he left Germany due to political reasons and travelled to America, where he became a Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton University. He took United States citizenship in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.


After World War II, he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Einstein declined the offer for the Presidency of the State of Israel at the same time.

During his scientific work, Einstein worked hard on the Newtonian mechanics, solving some inadequacies in this theory. He also solved some classical problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which successfully explained the Brownian movement of molecules.

In 1916 he published a paper on the general theory of relativity, where he explained that a theory of gravitation is required for the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity.

In the 1920‘s, Einstein worked on the construction of unified field theories, along with his work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory. He continued his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.


After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

The most significant of his scientific works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Some of his other works like About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) reveal that he was not only scientist, but also a socially active person.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920‘s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies around the world. He gained several awards for his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.


He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons. They divorced in 1919 and in the same year Albert married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936.  Professor Einstein died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

via: [nobelprize.org]

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