The Ancient Greek Geometry-Based Eupalinos Aqueduct
The Eupalinos aqueduct was built in the 6th century in Greece and was the first tunnel to be built by excavating from both ends through geometric calculation. The completed tunnel stretches just over 1000 meters in length at 1,036 m and served as an aqueduct for the town of Samos, Greece.
The man for which the tunnel gets its namesake, Eupalinos, was an ancient engineer who was commissioned under the tyrant Polycrates to build the tunnel to supply Samos with fresh water. Part of the goal was to provide an underground channel that would otherwise be undetectable to enemies as the source of Samos’ fresh water from mountain streams.